As the first Americans receive COVID vaccines, supplies remain limited even for the highest-risk populations. And with doses now in the pipeline, states are facing more intense questions about how they will prioritize vaccine delivery across demographic and at-risk groups. The graphic above shows an estimated vaccination timeline, based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) recommended schedule. It illustrates the relative size of different populations in each allocation phase, along with the likely difficulty of targeting them and verifying eligibility. The first phase is divided into three waves (1a, 1b, 1c) for at-risk populations and essential workers, while the second phase includes the rest of the adult population, as well as children (though pediatric clinical trials are still in early stages).
Unsurprisingly, the CDC recommends that those most at risk for infection and severe disease—healthcare workers and nursing home residents—receive the 20M doses available by year’s end. While most states are generally adhering to the initial recommendations on priority groups for phase 1a set by the CDC’s Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), several have made adjustments. At least three are including law enforcement personnel in phase 1a, and others are further categorizing healthcare workers into high-, medium-, and low-risk groups. This weekend, ACIP will reconvene to create its official recommendations for phases 1b and 1c, which include the much larger populations of adults over age 65, and those with high-risk medical conditions.
Beyond eligibility guidelines, larger questions loom. How would someone “verify” that they have a high-risk condition? Who will reach out to older Americans to let them know they are eligible, and where to access the vaccine? As vaccine rollout continues, providers should anticipate the role they will likely play in managing patients “in the queue”, documenting eligible conditions and establishing regular information channels to keep people informed about the current status of vaccine planning and access.